Regulations for All Commodities in Portugal (Source)

All Commodities

Maximum Allowable/Recommended Units

B1: 2 ppb, Total aflatoxins: 4 ppb
(processed cereals, groundnuts)

B1: 12 ppb, Total aflatoxins 15 ppb
(almond, pistachios, and apricots for processing)

B1: 8 ppb, Total aflatoxins 15 ppb
(peanuts, hazel, and brazil nuts for processing)

B1: 5 ppb, Total aflatoxins 10 ppb
(other tree nuts, dried fruit, rice, maize for processing)

B1: 2 ppb, Total aflatoxins 4 ppb
(cereals, rice, maize, peanuts, other tree nuts, & dried fruit for direct consumption)

B1: 8 ppb, Total aflatoxins 10 ppb
(almond, pistachios, and apricots for direct consumption)

B1: 5 ppb, Total aflatoxins 10 ppb
(hazel and brazil nuts for direct consumption)

B1: 5 ppb, Total aflatoxins 10 ppb
(spices)

B1: 0.10 ppb, M1: 0.025 ppb
(baby food, formula and dietary supplement)

M1: 0.05 ppb
(milk)

Selected Molds that produce aflatoxin

Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus

Commodities susceptible to contamination

Barley, cocoa, coffee, confectionery, corn/maize, copra, dairy, dried fruit, feeds, groundnuts/peanuts, infant formula, oats, rice, rye, sorghum, soy, spices, tree nuts, and wheat

Health effects

  • Liver cancer and damage
  • Immunosuppression
  • Decreased milk and egg production

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