Development of probiotics for replacement of antibiotics is one of the key factors for management in sustainable aquaculture.
This study examined the effects of probiotic forms (microencapsulated and freeze-dried cells), compositions of probiotics (bacteria, yeast and microalgae) and mode of probiotic administration (probiotic supplementation in either water additives or through probiotic-enriched artemia) on the growth, survival rate and microbial number of Litopenaeus vannamei.
They shrimp at various stages in two separate experiments:
(1) larval stages from zoea 3 to mysis 3 and
(2) postlarval (PL) stages from PL 1 to PL 21.
The treatments of both experiments included addition of:
(T1) artemia enriched with mixed microencapsulated Bacillus (MB),
(T2) artemia enriched with mixed MB and microencapsulated yeast (MY),
(T3) artemia enriched with mixed MB, MY and microencapsulated Chaetoceros (MC),
(T4) mixed MB,
(T5) mixed MB and MY,
(T6) mixed MB, MY and MC,
(T7) mixed freeze-dried Bacillus (FB),
(T8) mixed FB and freeze-dried yeast (FY),
(T9) mixed FB, FY and freeze-dried Chaetoceros (FC) and
(T10) control (no addition of probiotics).
Results demonstrated that two probiotics forms and modes of probiotic administration did not affect growth and survival of zoea 3 to PL 21.
The compositions of probiotics did not affect growth and survival of zoea 3 to mysis 3.
However, PL 1 to PL 21 treated with either bacteria and yeasts or bacteria, yeasts and Chaetoceros exhibited increases in growth and survival as compared to controls.
Numbers of total heterotrophic bacteria (THB), Bacillus and yeasts in shrimp from zoea 3 to PL 21 or culture water of all treatments were higher than in controls.
This investigation suggested that incorporation of bacteria and yeasts or bacteria, yeasts and Chaetoceros as microencapsulated or freeze-dried forms in water additives or probiotic-enriched artemia possessed as effective probiotics for rearing of L. vannamei based on the enhancement of survival and growth rate and concomitant increase in the beneficial microbial probiotics in shrimp larvae and postlarvae as well as in culture water.