Enniatins (ENN)

Fungal Sources

  • Fusarium sambucinum
  • Fusarium oxysporum
  • Fusarium avenaceum
  • Fusarium tricinctum
  • Fusariumculmoram
  • Fusarium poae
  • Fusarium lateritium
  • Fusarium scirpi
  • Fusarium torulosum
  • Verticillium hemipterigenum
  • Halosarpheia
  • Alternaria

Affected commodities
Barley, oats, wheat, rye.

Effects on animals
Homeostatic disorders, cytotoxic, hepatic disorders

Beauvericin (BEA)

Fungal Sources

  • Beaveria bassiana
  • Fusarium
  • Paecilomyces
  • Isaria

Affected commodities
Corn (maize), wheat, barley, oats, rye

Effects on Animals
Heart problems and respiratory difficulties.

Moniliformin (MON)

Fungal Sources

  • Fusarium proliferatum
  • Fusarium oxysporum

Affected commodities
Corn (maize), wheat, barley, rye, triticale, oats, rice, sorghum, pepper, flax, soya, millet.

Effects on Animals

Cardiac problems, reduction in growth and increased mortality.

Sterigmatocystin (STC)

Fungal Sources

  • Aspergillius versicolor
  • Aspergillius nidulans
  • Aspergillius flavus
  • Aspergillius parasiticus
  • Emericella
  • Botryotrichum
  • Humicola

Affected commodities
Cereals, green coffee, spices, walnut, beer and cheese (on the surface, in the case of fungal deterioration during ripening and storage).

Effects on Animals

Hepatic disorders, agalactia, abortions.

Increase in somatic cells, milk contamination.

Reduction in egg production, foot problems and embryotoxicity.

Patulin (PAT)

Fungal Sources

  • Aspergillus clavatus
  • Aspergillus terreus
  • Penicillium expansum
  • Penicillium claviforme
  • Penicillium roquefortii

Affected commodities
Apple, forages (rare)

Effects on Animals

Reduction in fibre digestion, negative effect on production of volatile fatty acids and microbial protein synthesis.

Citrinin (CTN)

Fungal Sources

  • Penicillium citrinum
  • Penicillium verrucosum
  • Penicillium expansum
  • Aspergillus
  • Monascus

Affected commodities
Rice, corn (maize), barley, oats, rye, wheat, walnut, groundnut, sunflower.

Effects on Animals

Renal lesions, increase in volume of urine excreted (up to 2.5 times).

Pruritus, fever and haemorrhages, calves born with malformation of the mouth.

Malformation of extremities, malformation of brain and eyes, increase in water consumption, liquid droppings.

Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA)

Cyclopiazonic acid (CPA)

Fungal Sources

  • Aspergillus flavus
  • Aspergillus tamarii
  • Aspergillus versicolor
  • Penicillium camembertii
  • Penicillium cyclopium

Affected commodities
Numerous, particularly corn (maize) and groundnut..

Effects on

Inactivity, anorexia, rough coat, diarrhoea.

Loss of appetite and physical condition.

Inflammation of the digestive system, haemorrhages, poor shell quality.